Strategic Math: Subtraction Facts 10 to 18

"Subtraction Facts 10-18 manual cover photo"

The Strategic Math Series focuses on how to teach basic math facts and operations to students of any age. Content is built upon the concrete-representational-abstract method of instruction. In this approach, understanding of mathematics is developed through the use of concrete objects, representational drawings, and an easy-to-learn strategy that turns all students into active problem solvers.

Subtraction Facts 10 to 18 provides all of the materials you need to teach subtraction facts using the concrete-representational-abstract method of instruction, including student materials and specific teaching procedures for each lesson.

In studies, students' computation scores rose from a pretest mean of 15 percent to a posttest mean of 98 percent. In addition, their speed in making these calculations increased 110 percent.


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Please note that professional development, coaching, and infrastructure support are essential components to effective implementation of SIM instructional tools and interventions. It is highly recommended that you work with a SIM professional developer. See the SIM Event list for sessions or email to learn more.


Author(s): Cecil D. Mercer, Susan Peterson Miller

Publication Info: Edge Enterprises, 1994


  • Research: Subtraction Facts 10 to 18 (.pdf)
  • Research Articles:
    • Miller, S., & Strawser, S. (1996). Promoting strategic math performance among students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Forum, 21(2), 34-40. This article provides suggestions for classroom teachers who want to integrate strategy instruction into their math curriculum by discussing a strategic classroom environment and strategic learners.

More in the Strategic Math Series


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